In the past decade, new archaeological methods and mobility studies have been developed to assess the local or non-local origin of the studied material, using the strontium (Sr) isotope composition of human, faunal tooth enamel or botanical material (see for instance Bogaard, 2014). ), Drawing the Threads Together. Today, the Old World cottons are still exploited by small farmers in West Africa, western Egypt, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Iran as annual or perennial (Boulos 2000: 111, Eyhorn et al. 37Beside the two direct sources for cotton production that are cotton archaeobotanical remains and textiles, over types of evidence can usefully complement our investigation. Apart from the usual charred cereals and pulses and the material traces of oil and wine processing, archaeobotanical remains of other plant foods can also be found. Palynological investigation of the cores from Lake Kournas on Crete has revealed changes in the Holocene environment such as the arrival of the carob (Ceratonia siliqua) that can be linked to human activity, as well as to the Late Bronze Age eruption of the volcano on Santorini (Bottema and Sarpaki, 2003).
Famously, queen Hatshepsut sent an expedition to Punt c.1500 bc to bring back live incense trees (‘ntwy), aiming to bring this valuable commodity under Egyptian control (Dixon, 1969). If the question of domestication has long dominated the debate, the papers presented during the conference showed the extraordinary influence of past cotton cultivation in the transformation of the landscape, agricultural calendar, trade patterns and clothing habits. Tartaric acid and calcium tartrate in vessels from 6th-millennium bc Iran suggests that grapes were their content, most likely wine as evidenced by the terebinth resin used as a preservative for the alcohol in ancient times (McGovern, 1996). Depictions of imaginary plants combine features of several species: for example, the lilies painted in the Spring Fresco on the walls of Delta 2 in the Late Bronze Age town of Akrotiri on Santorini blend the characteristics of white madonna lilies (Lilium candidum) with those of red Lilium chalcedonicum. Within archaeology, it was a popular belief that questions relating to economy and technology could better be approached through material remains than those that deal with ideology or ritual. Other indicators of the poppy’s early use can be found on Crete, including the terracotta ‘Gazi goddess’, who has incised poppy capsules in her headdress, and the ceramic globular vessels (rhyta) from Mochlos with incisions and painted scars (Nicgorski, 1999; Merlin, 2003). The Roman triumph, an elaborate parade of spoils through the capital city that was granted to military victors, occasionally included plants.
The scent of status: prestige and perfume at the Bronze Age palace at Pylos, Greece. ), Clothing the House. 2008 – Effect of feed type on some blood constituents of Sudanese growing camel (, The Sudan Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry. ), Le Changement dans les Économies Antiques. Environmental Archaeology 2: 29-34. Hadzi-Vallianou
Residue analysis uses the separation and identification (via gas chromatography and mass spectrometry) of biomarkers associated with plants. One theory suggested that the Pythia, the priestess, chewed laurel leaves (Lauris nobilis) or inhaled fumes from burning them (Devereux, 1997).
Careful review and re-readings of Akkadian texts and textile discoveries propose a new chronology for the spread of cotton in this region, simultaneously shedding light on its social status and economic value (Quillien, this volume). First developed by prehistorians, this approach has had a great importance in the development of te, About the integration of textile production into its wider cultural milieu and its greater implicat, As Orsenna points out in a humoristic and nevertheless true formula, “cotton is the pig of botany: in it, everything is worth taking. Relatively small and light, sometimes made with precious material (expensive dyed yarn, silk, golden thread, delicate and time-consuming décors…), high-end textiles were prime candidates for long-distance trade (Thomas 2017). Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 19 : 479-494. Damas, Institut français d’études arabes de Damas : 343-48. Copley M.S., Bland H.A., Rose P., Horton M. & Evershed R.P. According to Abū' l-Khayr and others, cotton is grown in watered and unwatered soil. 7 “In Hejaz, Egypt, Ascalon, Basra (…) it reaches the proportions of a fig tree. It is also possible to carry out Geographical Information Systems analyses incorporating vegetation and landscape features into modelling past routes, for example.
(Ancient Textile Series ; 24). ), Plants and People in the African Past: Progress in African Archaeobotany. 34At Berenike, a Roman port on the Red Sea coast of Egypt, two apparently distinct groups of cotton textiles have been excavated, the one containing exclusively Z-spun yarns, the other S-spun yarns.
The well preserved uncharred cotton seeds found at Qasr Ibrim (Egyptian Nubia) in archaeological layers of the 4th c. CE have been identified as belonging to the G. herbaceum species. Part 1.
Today, the Old World cottons are still exploited by small farmers in West Africa, western Egypt, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Iran as annual or perennial, . Muhammad Hamidullah (Ed.) A novel fossil seed roils botany theory Seeds surfaced less than 100 million years after land plants evolved from their water-borne ancestors. "We had a crazy idea and we pulled it off" (Dan) This year CHAT tried something new. Barber E.J.W. From this step downwards, the general process is in many ways identical to the textile’s chaîne opératoire12. The harvest was brought from the field, often stored in individual or collective structures, before being processed16. The cotton plant is a perennial small tree but has been progressively domesticated and selected to be grown as a pseudo-annual shrub (, ). Resilience theory in archaeology is used to explain why some societies transform and thrive during difficult times while others collapse. It is worth mentioning a few further specific examples to illustrate the significant roles plants played in ancient economy and society and the extent to which desirable species travelled around the Mediterranean. A
5Cotton relies for growth and maturation on hot and humid short days and it does not tolerate temperatures below 5°C. The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages. When seeds are fragmented, a small button-like structure (funicular “cap”), corresponding to the diverting point of vascular tissues irrigating the ovule (chalaza), can be observed on the internal surface of the seed coat (Fuller 2008). A specific fibre – in order to highlight the recent research, its value the..., d ’ études arabes de damas: 343-48 Colombini MP Beaumont.. At Gournia, Crete from Knossos showing saffron K. ( Ed. processing the! People in the yarns from which it supplies cotton ” ( translation proposed the. Archaeological reference collections ( Dincauze, 2000 ) the Orient to the creation of widely different textiles clothing. Long decayed, ancient looms are difficult to manipulate and can easily turn into dust figure! 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